An initial work package WP1 will aim to set the scene and for the main technology development WPs 2, 3 and 4. The WP will undertake some initial analytical work and pilot studies to determine the desired properties from the three tyre constituent materials. The work of this WP is also aimed to minimise the risk of the following scientific and technological developments. This WP will pilot basic technological innovations and ensure that enough materials are produced for the work of other WPs. The key challenges are the determination of the properties required and to find the correct candidate materials.

Key Objectives

To develop raw materials extracted from post-consumer tyres so as to be used in concrete applications. The key challenges are the determination of the properties required and to find the correct candidate materials


Task 1.1 will present the results of the pilot study on rubberised concrete and concepts for developing highly deformable elements.

The material requirements for high deformability elements will be examined using section analysis software and general FEA package ABAQUS. The effect to concrete strength loss due to addition of rubber (in different quantities and crumb size) will be quantified through pilot studies on the compressive properties of unconfined concrete.

Task 1.2 will present the State of the art on FRC, SFRC FRC and fibre blend FRC.

A literature review on the current state of the art on the use of steel and polymeric fibres in FRC. The review will identify the properties and standards for testing these fibres, as well as current design guidelines for the range of different applications. The review will then investigate the use of RTSF and in particular examine the characterisation of RTSF,since it appears that most studies use unclassified fibres, with which it is very difficult to make future comparisons.

Task 1.3 will present the results of the Pilot Study on Confined Rubberised Concrete

The selected mixes from T1.1 will then be examined during a follow on pilot study under different levels of effective confinement ratios. The best solutions in terms of highest axial capacity and deformation as well as ability to sustain acceptable lateral strain will be selected for more in-depth studies.

Task 1.4 will present the Analytical Study on Deformable Elements.

Based on the constitutive relationships developed in T1.3, the performance of different elements will be assessed using section analysis software and the general FEA packages ANSYS and ABAQUS. The results will be used to develop simple design rules for the design of the deformable elements that conform to the criteria established in T1.1 and to be tested in WP2.

Task 1.5 will present the Analytical Study on FRC and Design recommendations.

The studies of T1.2 will be extended to the structural level using FEA packages ANSYS and ABAQUS. The best material properties for structural uses of FRC will be determined, having in mind the material combinations proposed.

Task 1.6 will present the Preliminary LCA.

This task aims to assess the environmental impact and economic cost of the recycled materials derived from tyre recycling as well as of the developed rubberised concrete elements and fibre reinforced concrete mixes. This task includes a life cycle assessment and a life cycle cost analysis for these materials and concrete mixes.

Task 1.7 will be characterised materials of sufficient quantities for the purposes of the project (several hundred kg).

Whilst rubber crumb is already a product of tyre recycling, the processing of the RTSF is still work in progress and both Twincon and ADRIA are working on the EU Ecoinnovation project Twincletoes to develop clear and sorted RTSF at industrial quantities.